Overview

What is NEST?

NEST is a binary smart contract system that provides developers with various smart contract libraries for DeFi, NFTs and GameFi development.

Guide

Set Up Your Local Environment

This guide describes how to set up your environment using a specific toolset: Node.js + npm + hardhat. It also shows you how to use the NEST contracts, which are required for the contract examples in the NEST Docs guides.

Create a Node.js Project

  1. Download and install Node.js and npm.
  2. Create a new directory and navigate to it. Also, create a new node project with npm init.

Install Hardhat

  1. Install Hardhat, a development environment to compile, deploy, test, and debug your Smart Contracts.
$ npm add --save-dev hardhat
  1. Create a new hardhat config file, which you can use for compiling and testing contracts. For an example of how a typical smart contract repo is structure, select the "create a sample project" option during setup.
$ npx hardhat

Set the Solidity Version for Hardhat

For this example, we'll need to change ./hardhat.config.js to include the appropriate solidity version for compiling the NEST contracts. If you are using Hardhat's example project, you can skip this step.

module.exports = {
  solidity: '0.8.9',
}

Compile Your Contracts

$ npx hardhat compile

If everything worked correctly, and you used hardhat's simple example project, you should see the following output:

Downloading compiler 0.8.4
Compiled 2 Solidity files successfully
✨  Done in 3.25s.

Technical Reference

NEST Probability Virtual Machine(PVM)

Future

Buy Future

    function buy(
        address tokenAddress,
        uint lever,
        bool orientation,
        uint nestAmount
    ) external payable override
input type instruction
tokenAddress address Target token address, 0 means eth
lever uint Lever of future
orientation bool true: call, false: put
nestAmount uint Amount of paid NEST

Sell Future

    function sell(uint index, uint amount) external payable override
input type instruction
index uint Index of future
amount uint Amount to sell

Settle Future

    function settle(uint index, address[] calldata addresses) external payable override
input type instruction
index uint Index of future
addresses address[] Target addresses

Get Information of Future

Future index contains a multiplier information and a call or put information.

    function getFutureInfo(
        address tokenAddress, 
        uint lever,
        bool orientation
    ) external view override returns (FutureView memory)
input type instruction
tokenAddress address Target token address, 0 means eth
lever uint Lever of future
orientation bool true: call, false: put
output type instruction
index uint future index
tokenAddress address Target token address, 0 means eth
lever uint Lever of future
orientation bool true: call, false: put

Option

Open Option

    function open(
        address tokenAddress,
        uint strikePrice,
        bool orientation,
        uint exerciseBlock,
        uint nestAmount
    ) external payable override
input type instruction
tokenAddress address Target token address, 0 means eth
strikePrice uint The exercise price set by the user. During settlement, the system will compare the current price of the subject matter with the exercise price to calculate the user's profit and loss
orientation bool true: call, false: put
exerciseBlock uint After reaching this block, the user will exercise manually, and the block will be recorded in the system using the block number
nestAmount uint Amount of paid NEST

Exercise Option

    function exercise(uint index, uint amount) external payable override
input type instruction
index uint Index of option
amount uint Amount of option to exercise

Sell Option

    function sell(uint index, uint amount) external payable override
input type instruction
index uint Index of option
amount uint Amount of option to exercise

Find the Owner of the Options (Desc)

    function find(
        uint start, 
        uint count, 
        uint maxFindCount, 
        address owner
    ) external view override returns (OptionView[] memory optionArray)
input type instruction
start uint Find forward from the index corresponding to the given owner address (excluding the record corresponding to start)
count uint Maximum number of records returned
maxFindCount uint Find records at most
owner address Target address
output type instruction
index uint option index
tokenAddress address Target token address, 0 means eth
strikePrice uint The exercise price set by the user. During settlement, the system will compare the current price of the subject matter with the exercise price to calculate the user's profit and loss
orientation bool true: call, false: put
exerciseBlock uint After reaching this block, the user will exercise manually, and the block will be recorded in the system using the block number
balance uint option shares
owner address Target address

Roll

Start a Roll

    function roll44(uint n, uint m) external override
input type instruction
n uint count of NEST
m uint times, 4 decimals

Claim NEST

    function claim44(uint index) external override
input type instruction
index uint index of bet

Find the Information of the Target Address (Desc)

    function find44(
        uint start, 
        uint count, 
        uint maxFindCount, 
        address owner
    ) external view override returns (DiceView44[] memory diceArray44)
input type instruction
start uint Find forward from the index corresponding to the given contract address (excluding the record corresponding to start)
count uint Maximum number of records returned
maxFindCount uint Find records at most
owner address Target address
output type instruction
index uint bet index
owner address Target address
n uint32 count of NEST
m uint32 times, 4 decimals
openBlock uint32 the block number of bet when opened
gained uint gained number of NEST

NEST Oracle

NEST Oracle is a truly decentralized oracle, check the whitepaper to learn more about it.

Mechanisms

Valuation Asset and Auotation Asset

Each quotation track requires a unified amount of valuation asset and quotation asset. Thus, to participate in the price quotation, the maker needs to provide sufficient quotation asset with the same value as the valuation asset.

Take the ETH price quotation as one example, where the valuation asset is USDT, and its amount is 2000USDT. In this case, each quotation needs 2000USDT and 2000USDT-worthy ETH.

Quotation

The quotation participation needs to prepare valuation assets, quotation assets, quotation fees, and collateral assets (the collateral assets of all quotations are currently NEST). Valuation assets, quotation assets, and collateral assets can be used repeatedly in the contract without the need for transferring in every time (to save gas fees).

After the quotation, there will be a 5-minute verification period (practically calculated by block whose generation speed varies among different chains). After the 5-minute verification period, the maker can

  1. close the current quotation and start the next one;
  2. directly start the next quotation (if the relevant assets are sufficient) and close all of them after multiple quotations (which can save gas fees);
  3. withdraw the quotation assets.

Verification

During the 5-minute verification period of one typical quotation, anyone can question the price and choose to trade either valuation or quotation asset. Suppose all of the quotation asset is traded; in that case, the quotation will not take effect (If only part of the quotation asset is traded, the price will still take effect after the verification period). While trading valuation or quotation assets, a verifier must submit a new quotation with asset scales twice as the just-traded transaction.

During verification, to issue a new quotation with twice the transaction size is to prevent malicious verification, which may cause the oracle to stop generating prices.

Quotation -> Verified Quotation -> Verified Quotation -> Verified Quotation -> …; One quotation and all subsequently verified quotations (generated based on this quotation) form a so-called price chain. For each of the first four quotation verifications, a verifier must submit a new quotation with valuation, quotation, and collateral assets twice the just-traded transaction size. Afterward, a verifier must double only collateral assets for a new quotation.

To prevent exogenous funds in the market from attacking the oracle, the protocol allows the verifiers, only four times, to double the sizes of the valuation and quotation assets. This restriction does not apply to the collateral asset since it is endogenous to the system.

Mining Volume

Mining Volume of Current Block = Mining Volume per Block * Number of Blocks between Last Quotation and Current Quotation

Mining Volume per Quotation = Mining Volume of Current Block / Number of Quotations within Current Block

Mining volume per block will be annually attenuated to a proportion of the previous year. The attenuation lasts for 10 times, after which the mining volume keeps the same amount after the 10th attenuation. The attenuation starts from the initialization of the quotation track. Ethereum is calculated according to 2,400,000 blocks per year (depending on the block generation speed of different chains), and the attenuation proportion of current active quotation track(s) is set as 80%.

Request Price for Contract

Price Contract

mainnet
  • ETH: 0xE544cF993C7d477C7ef8E91D28aCA250D135aa03
  • BSC: 0x09CE0e021195BA2c1CDE62A8B187abf810951540
  • Polygon: 0x09CE0e021195BA2c1CDE62A8B187abf810951540
  • KCC: 0x7DBe94A4D6530F411A1E7337c7eb84185c4396e6
test
  • ETH_rinkeby: 0xc08e6a853241b9a08225eecf93f3b279fa7a1be7
  • BSC: 0xF2f9E62f52389EF223f5Fa8b9926e95386935277

Smart Contract

Get the Latest Triggered Price

Get the latest trigger price.The NEST price is a weighted average of all prices in the same block.New quotes and close operations trigger the calculation of prices that are already in effect earlier, while volatility and historical average prices are calculated.

function triggeredPrice(
    uint channelId,
    uint[] calldata pairIndices,
    address payback
) external payable returns (uint[] memory prices);
input type instruction
channelId uint Target channelId
pairIndices uint[] Array of pair indices
payback address Address to receive refund
output type instruction
prices uint[] Price array, i * 2 is the block where the ith price is located, and i * 2 + 1 is the ith price

Lastest Triggered Price Off-chain Reading(Contract CANNOT Use)

In block 14802456, 2000USDT = 0.069274BTC

Get the Full Information of Latest Triggered Price

Get the latest departure price and average price volatility information.

function triggeredPriceInfo(
    uint channelId, 
    uint[] calldata pairIndices,
    address payback
) external payable returns (uint[] memory prices);
input type instruction
channelId uint Target channelId
pairIndices uint[] Array of pair indices
payback address Address to receive refund
output type instruction
prices uint[] Price array, i * 4 is the block where the ith price is located, i * 4 + 1 is the ith price, i * 4 + 2 is the ith average price and i * 4 + 3 is the ith volatility

Lastest Triggered Price and Volatility Off-chain Reading(Contract CANNOT Use)

In block 14802456, 2000USDT=0.069274BTC, average price:2000USDT=0.069118234324991232BTC, volatility:17065492130

Find the Price at Block Number

Find the price in effect on the target historical block, or if there is no offer on the target block, go forward and find the most recent price in effect.

function findPrice(
    uint channelId,
    uint[] calldata pairIndices, 
    uint height, 
    address payback
) external payable returns (uint[] memory prices);
input type instruction
channelId uint Target channelId
pairIndices uint[] Array of pair indices
height uint Destination block number
payback address Address to receive refund
output type instruction
prices uint[] Price array, i * 2 is the block where the ith price is located, and i * 2 + 1 is the ith price

Find Price Off-chain Reading(Contract CANNOT Use)

In block 14802456, 2000USDT = 0.069274BTC

Get the Lastest Count of Effective Prices

Get the latest count of effective prices.

function lastPriceList(
    uint channelId, 
    uint[] calldata pairIndices, 
    uint count, 
    address payback
) external payable returns (uint[] memory prices);
input type instruction
channelId uint Target channelId
pairIndices uint[] Array of pair indices
count uint The number of prices that want to return
payback address Address to receive refund
output type instruction
prices uint[] Result array, i * count * 2 to (i + 1) * count * 2 - 1 are the price results of group i quotation pairs

Last Price Off-chain Reading(Contract CANNOT Use)

Read the latest 3 price information (BTC)

Return LastPriceList and Triggered Price Info

Return both the lastPriceList and the triggeredPriceInfo interfaces.

function lastPriceListAndTriggeredPriceInfo(
    uint channelId, 
    uint[] calldata pairIndices,
    uint count, 
    address payback
) external payable returns (uint[] memory prices);
input type instruction
channelId uint Target channelId
pairIndices uint[] Array of pair indices
count uint The number of prices that want to return
payback address Address to receive refund
output type instruction
prices uint[] Result of group i quotation pair. Among them, the first two count are the latest prices, and the last four are: triggered price block number, triggered price, average price and volatility

Last Price and Triggered Price Off-chain Reading(Contract CANNOT Use)

Read the latest 3 price information (BTC),average price,volatility

Example: Price Call

The example environment is the ethereum rinkeby test network.

  • Contract:0xc08e6a853241b9a08225eecf93f3b279fa7a1be7
  • ChannelId:0
  • Fee:0
Token Address PairIndex
HBTC 0xaE73d363Cb4aC97734E07e48B01D0a1FF5D1190B 0
ETH 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 1
NEST 0xE313F3f49B647fBEDDC5F2389Edb5c93CBf4EE25 2

About ChannelId and PairIndex

Anyone can open a channel and make a quote on it. A channel can contain multiple price pairs (they all have the same currency unit of denomination). It is similar to a two-dimensional arrays that locates the price to be queried by channelId and pairIndex.

About the Price Call Fee

Each call to the price method needs to carry a call fee, which is allocated by the administrator of the quote channel.Current fee is 0.

Network Fee
Ethereum 0ETH
BSC 0BNB
polygon 0MATIC
KCC 0KCS

Triggered Price and Last Price

Triggered Price may be delayed by one price compared to lastPrice. In most cases, they are the same. It depends on the offer density. Triggered Price requires less gas consumption, lastPrice must have the latest price, but has higher gas consumption.

Price Token and Price Token Unit

All prices in the documentation are in 2000 USDT, which is not fixed. Each channel has its own Price token and Price token unit, please check it before calling.

Channel Information Website

Read Channel Information from the Contract

Web Display Prices

web shows 1 ETH = 2500 USDT, get ETH price data as 800000000000000000(decimals 18), which means 2000 USDT = 0.8 ETH. Web converted to show.

Examples:

Use Instant Price
    // Query latest 2 price
    function _lastPriceList(
        TokenConfig memory tokenConfig, 
        uint fee, 
        address payback
    ) internal returns (uint[] memory prices) {

        // -----GET NEST PRICE-----
        prices = INestBatchPrice2(NEST_OPEN_PRICE).lastPriceList {
            value: fee
        } (uint(tokenConfig.channelId), _pairIndices(uint(tokenConfig.pairIndex)), 2, payback);
        // -----GET NEST PRICE-----

        prices[1] = _toUSDTPrice(prices[1]);
        prices[3] = _toUSDTPrice(prices[3]);
    }

    // Query latest price
    function _latestPrice(
        TokenConfig memory tokenConfig, 
        uint fee, 
        address payback
    ) internal returns (uint oraclePrice) {

        // -----GET NEST PRICE-----
        uint[] memory prices = INestBatchPrice2(NEST_OPEN_PRICE).lastPriceList {
            value: fee
        } (uint(tokenConfig.channelId), _pairIndices(uint(tokenConfig.pairIndex)), 1, payback);
        // -----GET NEST PRICE-----

        oraclePrice = _toUSDTPrice(prices[1]);
    }

    // Find price by blockNumber
    function _findPrice(
        TokenConfig memory tokenConfig, 
        uint blockNumber, 
        uint fee, 
        address payback
    ) internal returns (uint oraclePrice) {

        // -----GET NEST PRICE-----
        uint[] memory prices = INestBatchPrice2(NEST_OPEN_PRICE).findPrice {
            value: fee
        } (uint(tokenConfig.channelId), _pairIndices(uint(tokenConfig.pairIndex)), blockNumber, payback);
        // -----GET NEST PRICE-----

        oraclePrice = _toUSDTPrice(prices[1]);
    }
Use the Average Price
    /// @dev Get price
    /// @param token mortgage asset address
    /// @param uToken underlying asset address
    /// @param payback return address of excess fee
    /// @return tokenPrice Mortgage asset price(2000U = ? token)
    /// @return pTokenPrice PToken price(2000U = ? pToken)
    function getPriceForPToken(
        address token, 
        address uToken,
        address payback
    ) public payable override returns (
        uint256 tokenPrice, 
        uint256 pTokenPrice
    ) {
        if(uToken == address(USDT_ADDRESS)) {
            uint256[] memory pricesIndex = new uint256[](1);
            pricesIndex[0] = addressToPriceIndex[token];

            // -----GET NEST PRICE-----
            uint256[] memory prices = _nestBatchPlatform.triggeredPriceInfo{value:msg.value}(CHANNELID, pricesIndex, payback);
            // -----GET NEST PRICE-----

            require(prices[2] > 0, "Log:PriceController:!avg");
            return(prices[2], BASE_USDT_AMOUNT);
        } else {
            uint256[] memory pricesIndex = new uint256[](2);
            pricesIndex[0] = addressToPriceIndex[token];
            pricesIndex[1] = addressToPriceIndex[uToken];

            // -----GET NEST PRICE-----
            uint256[] memory prices = _nestBatchPlatform.triggeredPriceInfo{value:msg.value}(CHANNELID, pricesIndex, payback);
            // -----GET NEST PRICE-----

            require(prices[2] > 0 && prices[6] > 0, "Log:PriceController:!avg");
            return(prices[2], prices[6]);
        }
    }
Preventing Drastic Price Fluctuations

Market prices sometimes fluctuate too much, and there are some precautions to take when using prices, such as: comparing the deviation of the instant price with the average price, and not continuing to trade if it is too large.

    /// @dev Query latest price info
    /// @param tokenAddress Target address of token
    /// @param payback As the charging fee may change, it is suggested that the caller pay more fees, 
    /// and the excess fees will be returned through this address
    /// @return blockNumber Block number of price
    /// @return priceEthAmount Oracle price - eth amount
    /// @return priceTokenAmount Oracle price - token amount
    /// @return avgPriceEthAmount Avg price - eth amount
    /// @return avgPriceTokenAmount Avg price - token amount
    /// @return sigmaSQ The square of the volatility (18 decimal places)
    function latestPriceInfo(address tokenAddress, address payback) 
    external 
    payable 
    override
    returns (
        uint blockNumber, 
        uint priceEthAmount,
        uint priceTokenAmount,
        uint avgPriceEthAmount,
        uint avgPriceTokenAmount,
        uint sigmaSQ
    ) {

        // -----GET NEST PRICE-----
        (
            blockNumber, 
            priceTokenAmount,
            ,//uint triggeredPriceBlockNumber,
            ,//uint triggeredPriceValue,
            avgPriceTokenAmount,
            sigmaSQ
        ) = INestPriceFacade(NEST_PRICE_FACADE).latestPriceAndTriggeredPriceInfo { 
            value: msg.value 
        } (tokenAddress, payback);
        // -----GET NEST PRICE-----

        _checkPrice(priceTokenAmount, avgPriceTokenAmount);
        priceEthAmount = 1 ether;
        avgPriceEthAmount = 1 ether;
    }

Contract Deployment

Contract address:

Ethereum Mainnet

Name Interfaces mainnet
nest IERC20 0x04abEdA201850aC0124161F037Efd70c74ddC74C
usdt IERC20 0xdAC17F958D2ee523a2206206994597C13D831ec7
hbtc IERC20 0x0316EB71485b0Ab14103307bf65a021042c6d380
pusd IERC20 0xCCEcC702Ec67309Bc3DDAF6a42E9e5a6b8Da58f0
nestGovernance INestGovernance 0xA2eFe217eD1E56C743aeEe1257914104Cf523cf5
nestBatchPlatform2 INestBatchMining, INestBatchPriceView, INestBatchPrice2 0xE544cF993C7d477C7ef8E91D28aCA250D135aa03

Binance Smart Chain Mainnet

Name Interfaces bnb_main
nest IERC20 0x98f8669F6481EbB341B522fCD3663f79A3d1A6A7
pusd IERC20 0x9b2689525e07406D8A6fB1C40a1b86D2cd34Cbb2
peth IERC20 0x556d8bF8bF7EaAF2626da679Aa684Bac347d30bB
nestGovernance INestGovernance 0x7b5ee1Dc65E2f3EDf41c798e7bd3C22283C3D4bb
nestOpenMining INestOpenMining, INestOpenPrice, INestPriceView 0x09CE0e021195BA2c1CDE62A8B187abf810951540

Polygon

Name Interfaces polygon_main
nest IERC20 0x98f8669F6481EbB341B522fCD3663f79A3d1A6A7
pusd IERC20 0xf26D86043a3133Cc042221Ea178cAED7Fe0eE362
peth IERC20 0x1E0967e10B5Ef10342d4D71da69c30332666C899
nestGovernance INestGovernance 0x7b5ee1Dc65E2f3EDf41c798e7bd3C22283C3D4bb
nestBatchMining INestBatchMining, INestBatchPrice2, INestBatchPriceView 0x09CE0e021195BA2c1CDE62A8B187abf810951540

KCC-MAINNET

Name Interfaces kcc_main
nest IERC20 0x98f8669F6481EbB341B522fCD3663f79A3d1A6A7
pusd IERC20 0x0C4CD7cA70172Af5f4BfCb7b0ACBf6EdFEaFab31
peth IERC20 0x6cce8b9da777Ab10B11f4EA8510447431ED6ad1E
pbtc IERC20 0x32D4a9a94537a88118e878c56b93009Af234A6ce
nestGovernance INestGovernance 0x7b5ee1Dc65E2f3EDf41c798e7bd3C22283C3D4bb
nestBatchMining INestBatchMining, INestBatchPrice2, INestBatchPriceView 0x7DBe94A4D6530F411A1E7337c7eb84185c4396e6

Error Codes

NestBuybackPool.sol

  • "NBP:not router"

NestFutures.sol

  • "NF:too much tokenConfigs"
  • "NF:exists"
  • "NF:not exist"
  • "NF:at least 50 NEST"
  • "NF:lever must greater than 1"
  • "NF:lever too large"
  • "NF:can't convert to uint128"
  • "NF:can't convert to int128"
  • "NF:can't convert to uint"

NestOptions.sol

  • "NO:too much tokenRegistrations"
  • "NO:at maturity"
  • "NO:not owner"
  • "NO:can't convert to 64bits"
  • "NO:can't convert to int128"
  • "NO:can't convert to uint"
  • "NO:can't convert to uint112"
  • "NO:exerciseBlock too small"
  • "NO:!accounts"

NestProbability.sol

  • "NP:n or m not valid"
  • "NP:different owner"
  • "NP:!hashBlock"

NestVault.sol

  • "NV:exceeded allowance"

NestBatchMining.sol

  • "NOM:unit must > 0"
  • "NOM:token can't equal token0"
  • "NOM:token reiterated"
  • "NOM:not opener"
  • "NOM:vault error"
  • "NOM:!scale"
  • "NOM:!equivalent"
  • "NM:!takeNum"
  • "NM:!state"
  • "NOM:!fee"
  • "NM:!miner"
  • "NOM:!opener"
  • "NM:!accounts"
  • "NBM:can't convert to uint96"

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